On the MSDN blog
Will Linux distros run on Windows 10 S?
Many people have asked “You just announced that Linux distro’s are coming to the Windows Store – will they run on Windows 10 S?”
The answer is No!
Just because an “app” comes from the Windows Store does NOT automatically mean that it’s safe & suitable for running in Windows 10 S. There are some apps that are not allowed to run on Windows 10 S, including all command-line apps, shells and Consoles.
Read on for more background & info:
What is Windows 10 S?
A couple of weeks ago, Microsoft announced Windows 10 S – a new SKU of Windows which is “Streamlined for security and superior performance“.
Windows 10 S is primarily aimed at non-technical users – teachers & grade-school children, non-technical students, content creators, artists, etc. – people who don’t typically want to spend time & effort futzing with their PC – people who just expect their computer to work safely, quickly, reliably and efficiently.
To deliver this experience, Windows 10 S users can only install apps from the Windows Store. This enables Microsoft to help ensure a safe, predictable, easy-to-use experience by preventing malicious and/or inefficient apps from getting onto users’ machines and wreaking havoc with their data and resources.
and more about why a tons of stuff will not run under Windows 10 S ...
From the get go forgot to run any SDK, Flex SDK, or command-line stuff like Java, Redtamarin, etc.
Windows 10 S is not meant for that AT ALL
Now, for Windows Adobe AIR app that you could have converted for the UWP with Desktop Bridge,
it could work but maybe not ...
For example, if you need to run command-line stuff from Adobe AIR with
it probably not gonna work.
Other example would to require admin privilege to run/install something,
probably not gonna work either.
Also if you don't code sign your app it gonna be probably very very hard for a user to run it under Windows 10 S.
So yeah I use probably a lot, all that need testing.
One thing for sure is if you use the Desktop Bridge and are allowed to publish on UWP
then your app will most likely be available for Windows 10 S
as seen later in the blog post
Another class of Windows Store app, called Desktop Bridge (or “Centennial”) apps, are given much broader access to the OS. However, Desktop Bridge apps are only published by organizations which have a direct engagement with Microsoft, and which have been vetted and are well supported by the publisher. Examples of Desktop Bridge apps include Evernote, Arduino IDE, doubleTwist, PhotoScape, Virtual Robotics Kit, etc.
This is a little blurry ... on one side you may be "too smal" to be vetted as a worthy app to be on UWP
but on the other side Microsoft is badly in needs of apps being published on UWP so it might work in your favour.
Personally I have yet to have an app published on UWP so I can not comment further on the blurry process of how an app get vetted to end up there.